Healing Plants with plants and natural agriculture.

Healing Plants with Plants and Natural Plant Cultivation! (part one)

I have spent the last twenty years or so living in rural France, ten years living close to the land and trying to be self-sufficient on a small holding and ten years running an organic farm making wine and growing blueberries and medicinal plants. These ventures are now behind me but one of the very typically ‘French’ things they taught me was about using plant extracts to treat and tend cultivated plants. I know that botanical plant treatments are used all over but the French being the French have made it into an art form and a major part of organic cultivating. This is one of the subjects that I now teach students at the herbal school in Lyon.

 In order to give some the depth to the subject and enable readers to get their teeth into it, I propose this article in three parts, the first part will put ‘Healing plants with plants into context, the second will look at the techniques for making the extracts and the third will focus on some of the major plants used as fungicides, repulsives, bactericides, stimulants and elicitors.     

There is nothing new about this subject, in 1200 BC natural preparations were used in China as fungicides and for treating seeds, farmers all over the world were dependant on natural means to help preserve their crops from predators and disease. During the agricultural revolution in Europe, between 1750 and 1880, international commerce triggered the expansive use of the natural insecticide ‘Pyrethrum’, made fromthe dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and of course farmers and small holders worldwide all had their own local recipes and techniques for looking after their precious crops.

And then in one swell swoop, between 1920 and 1930, the industrial and scientific revolution proposed solutions to everything and the first synthetic constituents for fighting against plant diseases were available. These were followed shortly by the dreaded DDT and a whole new epoch began based on chemical solutions to help defend against insects in agriculture, horticulture, in stocked products, wood protection and of course public health.

And surprise, surprise, some years later in 1946, the first signs of resistance to the beloved DDT were detected in flies in Sweden, resistance developed fast and spread everywhere resulting in the general interdiction of DDT in the 1970’s, after of course a lot of damage had been done to ecosystems. Things however didn’t get better, they got worse and in 1983 the first transgenic plant was created, a tobacco plant that was modified to resist an antibiotic, this was followed in 1985 by the first transgenic insect resistant plant, again a tobacco plant in which a toxin gene of the Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria was introduced.

Today, there is a strong desire and above all a great need to get back to non-aggressive, natural forms of agriculture and gardening. Monocultures, intensive farming, toxic treatments and high yields have dominated farming for the last 50 years culminating in what we can only call yet another ecological disaster. The very earth that feeds us is dying from being exploited rather than ‘tended’ and cared for. Dying is not an exaggeration; the earth is a living organism, very much like our intestines in that it is populated with its own specific micro fauna and flora that help keep it in natural balance. If this fine natural balance is disrupted and ignored, slowly what was living dies resulting in soils that are no longer capable of nourishing plants without the help of chemical fertilizers and the vicious circle continues.

Image One of the things that surprises my students when they come to learn how to make plant extracts is that we spend the first day or two looking at different pieces of land, touching and smelling soil from different places, sitting on the forest floor looking at what happens on and above the ground.

Herbal healing for plants is holistic just as it is for people; in fact the analogies between the two are numerous. As in herbal healing for humans, it is not just a matter of spraying a natural treatment onto a diseased plant. If we take the patch of land concerned to be the ‘whole’ much as we would look at a patient and their life, we cannot expect a plant that is grown on chemically saturated soil, in tight rows to react positively to a nettle fermented extract any more than we can expect someone who has eaten an unbalanced diet, lived a stressful life and used antibiotics every time they had a cold to have a positive reaction to their first herbal tea.

The area in France, where I teach this subject is called ‘the Beaujolais’ and it is an extensive winemaking region, the naturally poor soils are painful to see, eroded, bare and lifeless. When I ask students to take a handful of the cultivated soil and feel it, smell it…they realise straight away that there is no organic matter, no earthy smell, everything has been taken away, what was once living and full of micro-organisms is now dead, the only way anything can grow on it is through the regular use of fertilisers. On the other hand when they take a handful of soil from the forest floor, the texture is varied, crumbly, the soil is dark and rich and the smell is that familiar smell of earth, mother earth. Soil is one of the main elements that makes earth different than other planets in the universe, it is a mixture of organic material and very small mineral and rock particles that can support life. We come from the soil and we go back to the soil, everyday more and more of that precious soil is being eroded, poisoned or covered with cement.Image

Soil can be compared to the intestines, both are populated with microorganisms that help retain balance and both are vital for overall health.

In conventional agriculture the soil is often considered uniquely a support for the crop, absolutely no thought is given to its health. It is however of upmost importance to take into consideration the interactions between the soil, the plant and the environment in order to produce quality plants in a manner that respects both the environment and the health of the soil and the plant.

 In herbalism before prescribing plants the herbalist will often take into account and try and help the patient work on diet, lifestyle, exercise and mental and emotional problems etc. the same is true when working on naturally healing land.  

Herbal preparations are one aspect of a myriad of different factors that need to be taken into consideration such as soil care, mulching, plant association, hedges, ponds and biodiversity etc., they are just a part of a ‘holistic’ approach to agriculture.

As in herbalism, healing plants with plants is very different from conventional medicine, and its symptomatic approach. Preventative healing is as important in healing plants with plants, as it is in herbalism, plant extracts are often used to help prevent a disease developing before any symptoms are present, such as in preventative medicine. Of course, when a disease is manifest, plants can be used to relieve symptoms but the main aim is to go beyond the symptoms and find the causes. The real healing is about introducing progressive changes so that the causes of the imbalance disappear. Read the rest of this entry »

Aromatic Medicine – integrating essential oils into herbal practice

ImageAromatic Medicine-integrating essential oils into herbal practice

I am  French herbalist, which although this means I do not exist in the eyes of the French government,  like many French herbalists I am very much alive in the eyes of the French public and I manage to make a living, teaching, writing and giving herbal consultations.

Being of English origin and a teacher above all, I have been following a calling to make bridges between the somewhat closed world of French herbalism and the more open eager to learn Anglo-Saxon herbal community.  During this summer teaching about aromatherapy and distilling hydrosols in the States, Ireland and the UK, I have noticed a very different approach and understanding of what safe use of essential oils actually means. This disparity between the two schools of thought  highlights for me the need now for greater understanding and information regarding the subject of essential oil use and an acknowledgment that for an approach to be truly “holistic”, it needs to embody all aspects of the plant matters spectrum and all aspects of a person’s being .

The two very different paths that have been developed in France and in the Anglo-Saxon countries regarding essential oil use only go back to the last century and were developed more or less by chance due to two different people’s life paths and ways of looking at things.

The French doctor and surgeon, Dr Valnet, went against the grain and stared working with medicinal plants and more particularly essential oils in a clinical setting in 1948. He gave the discipline its modern name of “aromatherapy” and due to his work on the field between 1950 and 1953 in Vietnam, followed by his many years using essential oils in clinical practice he became known as the father of modern aromatherapy in France, leading the way in integrating their use in clinical herbal practice.

At the same time, a certain Marguerite Maury was also developing some pioneering work into the use of essential oils but on another level all together. Marguerite had come from Belgium to the Alsace region of France, where she worked as a surgeon’s assistant, during this period she was given a book that changed her life called “Les Grandes Possibilitiès par les Matières Odoriferantes”, written by a certain Dr Chabenes . Her passion was born and she started researching, teaching and writing about using essential oils for well being due to their effect on the nervous system.   She eventually set up aromatherapy clinics in Switzerland, Paris and London and so the Anglo-Saxon path was born – essential oils for well being through massage and pressure points.

The above is a very succinct summary of how things happened and I am sure that many factors came into play but I just wanted to give an idea of how this gap between the two different approaches to essential oils began.

The gap is beginning to close now, thanks to improved communication and knowledge sharing but I still feel there is work to be done.

I personally follow the train of thought that essential oils need to be integrated into a larger spectrum of healing…English reflexology does this using the pressure points on the feet and the use of oils (reflexology in France tends not to use essential oils), French herbalism does this by making essential oils an integral part of the plant forms they use (herbalists in Anglo- Saxon speaking countries are not necessarily taught to integrate essential oils into their prescription possibilities).

I understand the idea of specialising in essential oils and becoming an aromatherapist as I do someone who has specialised in flower essences and becomes a flower essence practioner, I feel however that all these tools are essential elements of the herbalist’s tool box and to isolate them can result in a incomplete healing. The idea of holistic healing is to try and work on all levels of being, the physical, emotional, mental and subtle energies of a person, in my understanding the role of a herbalist is to have all the plant tools to hand and be able to choose the right tool or combination of tools for the patient at a given instant.

Where I am trying to get to with all this is that essential oils are very powerful, concentrated, plant extracts that have not only a preventative role of maintaining well being but a major role in already physically manifested disease and on this level leaving them out of a herbalist’s toolbox is like leaving the blue paint out of a painters palette

I have been out and about in the English speaking world, both physically and virtually through different social networks  a lot more lately and it has been interesting to observe the different attitudes to using essential oils, especially the subject of using them internally. There is often a lot of screaming and shouting on the “Linked in” forums, mainly by American aromatherapists, I must say, about the dangers of using them internally and how you are bound to die if you do (I am exaggerating a bit, but not that much), I can feel the reticence and real fear some of my American colleagues have about wanting to write about their use internally (even if they do so themselves and see understand the benefits)…walking on egg shells, knowing that it is going to stir a violent reaction. Here in the UK during my teaching, I was surprised to hear some herbalists talking about the way they use essential oils, ok not internally but I must say in a very carefree manner, a way in which any properly trained French herbalist would never consider, for example sprinkling them neat into bath water. This made me think and realise what was going on…in fact the idea that many people have about essential oils seems to be,

 ” If we don’t use them internally everything is fine and we can use them as we like without any real protocol”.

This to me is where the work we need to do comes in, France is the leading country in the clinical use of essential oils, where it is quite normal to, when the situation calls, use the right oil internally…in order to choice the right oil, dosage and duration a thorough training and protocol of using essential oils in all their Galencial forms is needed. It is not enough to think that if they are not used internally one can use them without a thorough training, it is knowledge, training and practice that give a certain freedom and a much needed level of security. Any aromatherapists out there, please do not get me wrong, I am sure that you have a very good level of training, I am really trying to get herbalists to understand that essential oils are vital tools and once we know how to use them correctly internally and externally the question of safety will no longer be a question, there will no longer be an issue.

Finally another important point for me is that due to the huge quantities of plant matter needed to make essential oils, ( between 7000 and Kg’s of lemon balm to make a litre of essential oil, a hectare of Damas roses to make a litre, between 150 and 600 Kg’s of lavender off. to make a litre etc.) we have a responsibility to use them carefully and sparingly.  Essential oils definitely have their place in herbal healing and by using a strict protocol, where a few drops is enough and using them only when they can be really effective we are recognising them as the precious plant extracts they really are.

The aim of the book “Aromatic Medicine” that I have collaborated on with Lyon’s herbal school, where I teach is to share with English-speaking herbalists the basic information taught to our students to enable them to start exploring essential oils as part of herbal medicine. It is basically a textbook that herbalists and practitioners can refer to in order to start or continue using essential oils safely and effectively.

The book Aromatic Medicine by Patrice de Bonneval and Cathy Skipper  is available in the States at the NAHA book store http://www.naha.org/bookstore/aromatic-medicine-integrating-essential-oils-into-herbal-practice  at the Nutricentre bookstore in the Hales clinic, London, UK and from Nikki Darrell in ireland at http://www.veriditashibernica.org/contact.php